PACS – Basic Structure, Importance, and Limitations

PACS or picture archiving and communication system is a medical imaging technology that is fundamentally used in healthcare organizations to securely store and digitally transmit electronic images and clinically suitable reports.

It eliminates the use of physical films generated from different imaging devices by going fully digitized. It offers ease and convenience with reasonable storage solutions and eliminates transport transmission of traditional films.

  1. input from digital or digitized analog devices, which may be any radiological modality e.g. x-ray, CT, MRI or ultrasound. It includes whole-body solutions for diagnostic imaging needs.
  2. image acquisition device
  3. image cloud storage device or server for short or long term information storage
  4. transmits local or web-based network
  5. display and imaging workstations plus user interface
  6. convert hard-copy images on need basis
  7. integration with radiology information system (RIS) and hospital information system (HIS)
Photo by Owen Beard on Unsplash

A patient may undergo a battery of radiological investigations at separate locations, which need to be accessed by multiple radiologists and multiple treating physicians in different locations. PACS functions as major system for rapid transfer of images, while maintaining the original quality is a vital, rather complex technological need. 

Also, hard-copy films are difficult to store and archive, and the quality deteriorates over time (although electronic media are not immune to the latter issue).

Capital cost was a major limitation in the early years but entry of multiple vendors into the market, as well as the geometric increase in processing power and digital storage has significantly brought expense down. PACS vendors can now offer scalable high-quality systems with flexible configurations along with affordable hardware and software support.

The vital limitation of PACS or teleradiology devices, is the quality of images, which may be compromised by suboptimal resolution display monitors at different locations. Also, any technical failure, and improper back-up storage may hold back the data retrieval and carries the rare risk of massive data loss.

The systems accommodate to a wide variety of health care divisions including: IDTF, emergency centers, orthopedics, cardiology, hospitals, teleradiology, and numerous more for Cloud PACS.

Undeniably, a cloud-based PACS reduces overall costs since IT systems management is outsourced from IT experts. With the presence of a reliable, high speed internet connection, the adoption of cloud-based PACS can be fully operational.

The Benefits of Playing Games for both Kids and Adults

There are several ways to ease stress and that includes playing games as a cheap form of entertainment at home. If you enjoy playing games, then you are allowing yourself to have an effective stress reliever that provides immediate comfort.

Truly, what works for one person might not work for another. Some may consider meditation, sports or exercise rather than playing games. But whatever way it might be, you are doing yourself a huge favor for prioritizing your well being.

This pandemic takes toll in our emotional and mental health, and had devastating impact even for young children. As we all have limited activities, kids nowadays turn to playing computer games or keeping it busy with their gadgets. Similar to a lot of aspects, the key is moderation. Parents should place limits of time spent on screen. We also need to constantly remind them (including ourselves!) to take a break and follow the 20-20-20 rule, that is, “rest your eyes for at least 20 seconds every 20 minutes by looking at something 20 feet away” to avoid eye strain”.

Surprisingly, there are known benefits of playing games which includes:

  • Healthy brain stimulation
  • Development of problem-solving skills
  • Stress relief

Again, stress relief! At this time, due to changes and restricted activities, let us allow ourselves to off load those negative emotions and fatigue by playing games. Our whole family actually, are into gaming as our way to de-stress. A few rounds of our favorite games can make us feel competence and relaxed, yet everything must be done in moderation. Playing games shouldn’t interfere with academics, work, household chores and physical activities.

When it comes to game type, I like simple ones like mind and word games. I also like similar to Bomber Man and Super Mario which takes me back to childhood and provides a nostalgic vibe while husband likes playing “Mobile Legends” with his friends. My 3rd grader loves playing war games, the likes of Kingdom Defense game, and yes, Plants vs. Zombies and works really hard to pass the levels.

On the other hand, my 8th grader prefers challenging and relaxing game. It’s different with my growing teen, he stayed on his own room and spend time alone enjoying his privacy.

When asked to describe what’s his kind of game, he then enumerated and described the following games that he’s playing for FREE at plays.org:

(NOTE: game review on his own words, unedited)

1. Minigolf World Mini Golf Game has very straightforward and easy controls and beautiful graphics and animation. It is unique because it has expansive course and you get to experience the terrain like nearby woods, lakes, and trees. It sets the mood for relaxation. and the back ground music is helping make things more relaxing. 

You must exert a lot of force while figuring out the best angle. If you want to make a shot again, you can press the redo circle button on the upper right of the screen. This game is challenging but relaxing. One of the most challenging aspects of the game is getting your ball on higher ground. It needs a lot of trials and error and patience.


2. 2 Minutes to Escape Game. This is timed Scrolling platform. The game has a nice Retro Pixels vibe and the controls are pretty easy. The tutorial does a pretty nice way of explaining and gives you all the things you need to know to finish a level. The game is very difficult and challenging and it needs a lot of focus, timing and patience. It is fun because of that and I’ll definitely replay this game if I have some extra levels i need to perfect. The game is original and the design is pleasing to the eyes and very basic and  you need to escape the ship in 120 as the name says it. It’s very important to define your strategy to get your character to the exits on the dot. Expect to play through the entire course several times before you clear the base in two minutes.


3. 8 Bit Dungeon Knight Game. While this game resembles classic role-playing games (RPGs), it is actually a puzzle game. Adding to the RPG flavor of this puzzle game is the presence of power-ups. You need this power-ups to defeat powerful enemies the hero needs to take these power ups to bolster their attack. The game is not that difficult it just needs patience and thinking and strategy which makes the game really fun. The layout of the level and the design is nice and basic the background music really gives out the dungeon vibe and the sound effects feels really  satisfying. But playing the game too much and speed running it can really make you tired because when you try to walk you can’t hold the move button and you have to press it multiple times and since the layout is kinda big it can really be tiring sometimes. You just need a couple of breaks while playing the game.

That goes our conversation now, it’s mostly about games as he spent most of his time on it. I can tell that those games can inspire the kids to be more persistent and to keep on trying. Playing games can teach them to learn from their mistakes as they make progress to reach their goal. Those missteps was somehow considered a learning opportunity to work towards their goal and be more confident in achieving it.

Studies have shown that playing games regularly may boost brain connectivity, memory, perception, and spatial navigation. Gamers are more likely to have good social skills and can build better relationships with others due to social and collaborative fundamentals to some types of games.

So yeah, playing games can truly provide concrete benefits in real life. 🙂

Dr. Shelton Zenith Labs’ Solutions on Improving Eye Health

Dr. Shelton Zenith Labs is a team of health professionals with a revolutionary approach to natural supplements. They help educate people on how to effectively take care of themselves with new tools and techniques to improve health and well- being.

They offer doctor-formulated supplements to provide whole-body solutions from usual to the most frustrating health concerns. Backed-up by medical researched, they offer natural ingredients in natural remedies for the following categories:

  • Heart health
  • Blood sugar
  • Hair regrowth
  • Hearing
  • Longevity
  • Joint health
  • Men’s health
  • Mental health
  • Weight loss
  • Immune support and
  • Vision

From the above categories, improving vision is what I personally want to achieve right now. Yesterday, I have my eyesight checked and my astigmatism worsen from 0.5 diopters to 100. Meaning from mild, it becomes moderate. It’s not necessarily a bad thing, but the slowly deterioration of vision quality needs to be addressed.

Astigmatism is a common vision problem that is caused by irregularly shaped cornea. The lens of the eye or the cornea, which is the front surface of the eye, has an error due to irregular curve. This causes blurry, fuzzy, or distorted vision.

With a rounder shape, the eye can properly control the amount of light that enters, making it easier to see clearly. An irregularly-shaped eye, however, means that the light that enters is unevenly distributed, thus resulting in blurred vision.

It can occur in children and adults. There’s no known causes of astigmatism, but genetics is a big factor. You have a high risk of developing astigmatism if you have any of the following:

  • a family history of astigmatism or other eye disorders, such as keratoconus (degeneration of the cornea)
  • scarring or thinning of your cornea
  • excessive nearsightedness, which creates blurry vision at a distance
  • excessive farsightedness, which creates blurry close-up vision
  • a history of certain types of eye surgery, such as  cataract surgery (surgical removal of a clouded lens)

The methods for astigmatism treatment includes: wearing corrective lenses, Orthokeratology /Ortho-K, and surgery. I have long been recommended for a LASIK surgery but needs to prioritize other expenses first and choose to settle on wearing eyeglasses and contact lenses.

If you are like me who struggle from astigmatism and other vision problems like blurriness, poor night-time vision, or eye floaters, then we must definitely take into serious consideration the habit of eating foods that can help improve our eyesight.

By doing so, the goal is improve our vision without spending much on optometrist, to have eye surgery or new prescriptions every year, or new contacts every year. Science has shown that there are types of foods that we can eat to improve our vision, and there are dietary patterns that we can follow. It is best to know what food nutrients we should take that can benefit the eyes.

Here’s the Nutrients that Will Optimized Eye Health:

1. Lutein & Zeaxanthin

Lutein & Zeaxanthin are powerful antioxidants, it also work to protect eyes from free radical damage. Eat foods like broccoli, cauliflower, kale, bok choy, spinach and squash.

2. Vitamin A

This vitamin plays a crucial role in vision by maintaining a clear cornea. It is also a component of rhodopsin, a protein in the eyes that allows you to see in low light conditions.

Good sources of Vitamin A includes bilberry, rose hip tea, squash and spinach.

3. Vitamin C

This vitamin contributes to a healthy blood vessels. High amounts of vitamin C are also found in many fruits and vegetables, including bell peppers, citrus fruits, guavas, kale, and broccoli.

4. Omega 3 and fatty Acids

Omega 3 fatty Acids, EPA and DHA helps maintain eye functions. The best dietary source of EPA and DHA is oily fish. Additionally, omega-3 supplements derived from fish or microalgae are widely available.

5. Gamma- Linolenic Acid

GLA  is an omega-6 fatty acid found in small amounts in the modern diet. It is known as the most powerful health-promoting omega-6, and is found in evening primrose oil, borage seed oil, hemp oil and black currant seed oil.

6. Vitamin E

Vitamin E is a group of fat-soluble antioxidants that protect fatty acids from harmful oxidation.

The retina has a high concentration of fatty acids, that is why adequate vitamin E intake is important for optimal eye health. The best dietary sources of vitamin E include almonds, sunflower seeds, and vegetable oils like flaxseed oil.

7. Zinc

Our eyes contain high levels of zinc.

Zinc is a part of many essential enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, which functions as an antioxidant. It is involved in the formation of visual pigments in the retina. For this reason, zinc deficiency may lead to night blindness.

Natural dietary sources of zinc include oysters, meat, pumpkin seeds, and peanuts.

In addition, healthy lifestyle habits, such as a wholesome diet and regular exercise, can help prevent many chronic diseases — including eye conditions. We must all pay attention with our eye health and make sure to get enough of the nutrients listed above to improve vision.

There are also alternatives to take like concentrated supplements that are packed with lutein, zeaxanthin, vitamin C, proanthocyanadins, and vitamin A foods that we all need to help maintain good eyesight.

Why Do We Need Health Insurance?

As a way to safeguard against future uncertainties, the need to be insured and stay financially protected is our best defense. Insurance policy is a proven financial instrument available to help in varieties of life stage needs. At this rising healthcare costs, adapting a healthy lifestyle and regular exercise should be a top priority, so does financial security.

The importance of life and health coverage was paramount as we currently experiencing a tough time during this pandemic. This crucial point have taught and reminded us that medical emergencies can befall when we least expected. The simplest answer to question as “Why do we need Health Insurance?” because it can reduce the anxiety and worry especially during this worldwide health crisis.

Photo by Kristine Wook on Unsplash

We all need medical care at some point. Health Insurance can cover these costs so we are left to focus on getting better and not be burdened with financial strain. It simply protects you from health and financial risks with the following benefits:

  • It covers essential Health benefits vital to maintaining health, treatment and accidents.
  • It protects you from unexpected expensive medical costs.
  • You pay less for health care coverage, even before you receive your hospice billing.
  • You get free preventive care such as vaccines, screenings, and check-ups.

Getting health insurance is extremely important with today’s fast-paced lifestyle to efficiently manage high unexpected healthcare expenses. A health plan that provides critical conditions coverage can ensure that you will have the necessary funds for treatment and recovery.

The major and minor critic critical conditions benefits set out may vary depending on your policy contract. Here’s a brief reference for the 15 most common major and 5 most common minor critical conditions coverage from my own health plan provider for a quick guide.

Top 15 Major Critical Conditions Covered

  1. Cancer
  2. Stroke
  3. Heart Attack
  4. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery
  5. Heart Valve Surgery
  6. Major Organ Transplantation
  7. Chronic and Irreversible Kidney Failure
  8. Alzheimer’s Disease
  9. Parkinson’s Disease
  10. Bacterial Meningitis
  11. Benign Brain Tumor
  12. Paralysis
  13. Loss of Independent Existence
  14. Severe Rheumatoid Arthritis
  15. Severance of limbs

Top 5 Minor Critical Conditions Covered

  1. Pre Cancer or Stage zero cancer ( Carcinoma-in-situ)
  2. Angioplasty and other invasive treatments for Coronary Artery Disease
  3. Early stage of prostate cancer
  4. Hepatitis with liver cirrhosis
  5. Dengue Hemorrhagic fever


The rise of lifestyle diseases among under the age of 45 is rampant. That is why opting to invest in a health plan that also covers regular medical tests that can help early detection makes it easier for us to take care of medical expenses. This allows us to enjoy a worry-free life. Personally, the main reason why I availed of health insurance coverage is that it gives me the security that my loved ones will be financially protected even when the unexpected happens.

Getting one becomes an essential requirement as it can also protect our savings and not get drained with unforeseen circumstances. In that way, our savings can be solely placed on their intended use.

Generally, making adjustments to our savings, investments, and protection priorities can help us fight against future uncertainties. It is best to make a thorough research to compare and determine a plan that suits your needs.